A Look at ‘Miss America’ Through the Years

The Miss America Pagent is getting a remodel this year. The swimsuit portion is out and the organization says it will o longer judge women on their physical appearance. This is one of many changes that have taken place during the time the pagent started in 1921.  Take a look at some of the winner from those early years.

1921 What started as a way to boost tourism in Atlantic City ultimately became the pageant that we know today. Of the 10 contestants who competed in 1921, Washington D.C. native Margaret Gorman won two titles — Inter-City Beauty and The Most Beautiful Bathing Girl in America. One year later, she was renamed Miss America, according to the Miss America Organization site.
1955

 

In 1955, beloved host Bert Parks kicked off his 24-year run with the Miss America pageant, according to the Los Angeles Times. The show aired on television for the second year, and Colorado’s Sharon Kay Ritchie took the crown.
1961

 

Fifteen hundred women were invited to compete in Atlantic City for the Cinderella-themed Fortieth Royal Reunion Pageant in September 1960. In the end, a whopping 85 million viewers tuned in to watch Nancy Fleming take the crown, according to Today.
1966

 

The judges panel was star-studded, with Oscar winner Joan Crawford joining the group, according to Variety. Deborah Bryant was the first Kansas resident to claim the title.
1969 Judith Ford (Miss Illinois) was a world-class trampolinist, who performed a routine for the talent portion of the competition. She was even a member of her college’s men’s trampoline team.
1971 Although Phyllis George (pictured) was named Miss America that year, it was Cheryl Adrienne Browne, who was most notable as the show’s first African-American contestant, according Press of Atlantic City.
1984 Before heading to Wisteria Lane, Vanessa Williams donned the crown as the first African-American woman to win the title. But upon learning unauthorized photos of Williams would be released in Penthousemagazine, she was unfairly forced to resign by the Miss America Organization just two months from her one year mark. As a result, runner-up Suzette Charles became the second African-American woman to earn the title.
1925 Fay Lanphier remains the only person to wear the Rose Queen and Miss America crown in the same year. She had a brief acting career after her pageant life.
1989 Long before her news career, Gretchen Carlson took home the crown and sash. She is currently on the board for the Miss America organization. However, multiple Miss Americas have come forward and demanded Gretchen resign from the board after she allegedly bullied multiple contestants.
2014 Nina Davuluri performed a Bollywood dance as her talent, helping her ultimately secure the crown and become the first Indian American to win. She said of her win, “I really wanted to help effect a change in beauty standards …. Miss America’s branding is so associated with the girl next door, which has always meant blonde hair and blue eyes with only a few exceptions, but the girl next door must evolve as the country evolves. When I was younger I wanted to fit in, but I was aware growing up that I didn’t fit that mould, and I really wanted to help make a change that meant young girls wouldn’t feel like that.”
1945 Miss America 1945, Bess Myerson, was the first and only Jewish woman to win the title, according to Forward. She used her platform to speak out against discrimination by teaming up with the Anti-Defamation League. She applied her pageant scholarship money to graduate studies at Juilliard and Columbia University.
1946 The organization divided its new scholarship fund among Miss America Marilyn Buferd and the 15 finalists. They also decided the term “bathing suit” was out, and the more concise “swimsuit” was in, according to Pageantry Magazine.
2000 Angela Perez Baraquio became the first Asian American to wear the crown after beating out Faith Jenkins (Miss Louisiana) and Rita Ng (Miss California.) She went on to help host the 2002 competition.
2003 Ericka Dunlap was the first African American to hold the title of Miss Florida prior to entering the Miss America competition. She won Miss America over runners-up Kanoelani Gibson (Miss Hawaii) and Tina Sauerhammer (Miss Wisconsin.) Dunlap and her husband went on to compete on the 15th season of The Amazing Race.
1933 The pageant was briefly discontinued in 1928 amid push back from women’s groups and church officials, according to Slate. But in 1933, businessmen gathered and revived the event, in the hopes that it would bring in a profit during the Great Depression. Despite all of the hubbub involved, 15-year-old Marion Bergeron took home the title.
1936 With more events and contestants (46 total), the pageant was finally able to pay off its debt the year Rose Veronica Coyle was crowned. This also marked the first year interviews were part of the competition, according to Press of Atlantic City.
1927 Lois Delander (Miss Illinois) won the last title before the show was cancelled for several years. She was 16 when she nabbed the crown.
1941 This was the year the organization changed its name from The Showman’s Variety Jubileeto The Miss America Pageant. And while she was runner-up the year prior, Rosemary LaPlanche ultimately secured the title. She kicked off her year as Miss America traveling with the U.S.O. and selling war bonds, according to Today.

Back in the Day When They Used to Market Cocaine: These Coke Gear Ads From the Mid-1970s and Early 1980s Are Nuts!

The 1970s, when disco dust was plentiful and there were cocaine paraphernalia ads galore in head magazines. Although the “glamorised” drug wasn’t legal in America, it didn’t stop the drug and tools for doing it being marketed in magazines or newspapers.

Inspired by the hit Netflix series Narcos, a drama about the life of world infamous drug kingpin Pablo Escobar, fans of the crime drama decided to do some investigating of their own and dug up “coke gear” ads from drug magazines published between 1976 to 1981, posting the collection on The World’s Best Ever.

Here are some of the advertising from the coke era between 1976 and 1981.














































 

 

26 Rare Vintage Photographs That Capture Life in Russia From the 1920s to 1930s

In the 1920s, as the new Soviet state temporarily retreated from the revolutionary path to socialism, the party also adopted a less ideological approach in its relations with the rest of the world. Lenin, ever the practical leader, having become convinced that socialist revolution would not break out in other countries in the near future, realized that his government required normal relations with the Western world for it to survive.

Not only were good relations important to national security, but the economy also required trade with the industrial countries. Blocking Soviet attainment of these objectives were lingering suspicions about communism on the part of the Western powers and concern over foreign debts incurred by the tsarist government, which the Soviet government had unilaterally repudiated.

1920s. A woman selling her family jewels in a market in Moscow.
1927. Construction of the Central Telegraph in Moscow.
1928. On the beach in Yalta.
1928. The Red Riviera, Yalta.
1928. Shoeshiners in Batumi.
7 November, 1928. Celebrating the 11th anniversary of the revolution on Uritsky Square in Leningrad
1929. Passersby view posters in Leningrad.
1929. Only a few people such as engineers and opera singers can afford to hire babysitters.
17 December, 1929. The current status of the former royal architecture on Nevsky Prospekt street in Leningrad.
1930s. On the streets of Kharkov.
1930s. Spontaneous market.
1930. The Moscow trial engineers.
1930. Trading goods in Ligovka, Leningrad.
1930 Rush hour on the streets of Leningrad.
1931. Tractor plant in Stalingrad.
1931. Soviet tourists visiting London.
1931. Posters in Stalingrad.
1931. Textile factory in Tiflis.
1931. Surface asphalt Leningradskoe Shosse in Moscow.
1929. The first skyscrapers in Kharkov.
1929. View of Yalta.
1932. Aluminum plant in Leningrad.
1930s. In the area of Rosa Luxemburg in Kharkov.

You might also like these vintage photos of Russia that show the Battle of Leningrad.

Photos of New York City’s Street Scenes from between the 1960s-70s

Photographer Paul McDonough has a knack for catching passing, off-kilter incongruities on the New York City streets. He arrived in the city in 1967 and started taking photographs of unique moments happening around him; the New York City 1968-1972 series is said to be his first as a photographer.

Capturing weirdness on the streets of New York City might seem like an easy feat, but McDonough has a rare ability to capture a confluence of gestures in the exact moment in which a great photograph happens.



















Rare Photos of Showing Brutal Life of North Koreans During Winter of 1973

These rare photos of North Korea, were taken in 1973 by British Photographer John Bulmer and published in the British Sunday Times. North Korea was even more isolated during this period than it currently is.

School boys listening to a museum tour guide
School boys listening to a museum tour guide
North Koreans staring at foreign reporters
North Koreans staring at foreign reporters
A group of tourists in Kim Il Sung Square, 1973.
A group of tourists in Kim Il Sung Square, 1973.
North Koreans pilgrimage to Mansudae Monument
North Koreans pilgrimage to Mansudae Monument
A Volga GAZ-21 car stopped at Pyongyang street
A Volga GAZ-21 car stopped at Pyongyang street
Kim IlSung's portrait at Chosun Central Historical Museum
Kim IlSung’s portrait at Chosun Central Historical Museum
Kim Il Sung died in 1994. His statue was created in North Korea in 1973 long before he died.
Kim Il Sung died in 1994. His statue was created in North Korea in 1973 long before he died.
School children walking along the Pyongyang People's Palace
School children walking along the Pyongyang People’s Palace
Cleaner in Pyongyang City
Cleaner in Pyongyang City
John Boomer and Philip Oaks, photographers, pose in front of Kim Il Sung's birthplace.
John Boomer and Philip Oaks, photographers, pose in front of Kim Il Sung’s birthplace.
Posters on North Korean Street, 1973
Posters on North Korean Street, 1973
Women viewing poster of Kim Il Sung
Women viewing poster of Kim Il Sung
North Korean high school students learning how to disassemble firearms.
North Korean high school students learning how to disassemble firearms.
North Korean mural showing revolutionary struggle.
North Korean mural showing revolutionary struggle.
North Korean weekday morning. Residents off to work by foot.
North Korean weekday morning. Residents off to work by foot.
Foreign-only hotel in North Korea.
Foreign-only hotel in North Korea. Notice that there are no locals milling about.
Girls in Pyongyang City.
Girls in Pyongyang City.

Photos of of Pimps, Prostitutes and Homeless from 1970s Times Square Through a Bartender’s Camera

In 1972 Shelly Nadelman began a ten-year run bartending at one of New York City’s most notorious dives: the Terminal Bar, located across the street from the Port Authority Bus Terminal near Times Square.

For ten years, right up until the bar closed for good in 1982, he shot thousands of black and white photographs, mostly portraits of his customers— neighborhood regulars, drag queens, thrill-seeking tourists, pimps and prostitutes, midtown office workers dropping by before catching a bus home to the suburbs—all of whom found welcome and respite at the Terminal Bar.

“In the beginning it was just the regulars and they were willing and able to be photographed,” Nadelman said in an interview. “Then there were just faces that came in and I knew I wouldn’t see them again. But they looked interesting. I’d say 90 percent of the people were willing to be photographed.”
In the early 2000s, his grown son Stefan began sorting, scanning, and printing his dad’s negatives, and very quickly realized that the scene at Terminal Bar had become a historic artifact. That New York was fading fast — it was just about gone, in fact — and Sheldon Nadelman had caught it all. The images were eventually made into a book, Terminal Bar, by Princeton Architectural Press; it brings back to life the 1970s presanitized Times Square, a raucous chapter of the city that never sleeps.

Rare Colour Pictures of Seoul in 1948-49, before the Korean War

In 1945, with the surrender of the Empire of Japan in September 1945 that ended World War II, Korea was liberated from the Japanese occupation exercised since 1910. However, the peninsula was divided in two parts: the Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea), at one time supported by the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union. A few years later, in 1950, North Korea launched a surprise attack with the intention to invade South Korea and move to dominate the whole peninsula. The attack began the Korean War, a conflict that still exists today, despite the ceasefire signed in 1953.

Here’s a series of 32 awesome colour photographs of daily life in Seoul. These photos are taken in the winter, between October 1948 and March 1949.

 
























































You might find these photos of North Korean in 1980s interesting!

Amazing Colorized Photos of discovery of Tutankhamun in 1922

During the early twentieth century, Howard Carter, a British Egyptologist, excavated for many years in the Valley of the Kings—a royal burial ground located on the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes, Egypt. When Carter arrived in Egypt in 1891, he became convinced there was at least one undiscovered tomb–that of the little known Tutankhamen, or King Tut, who lived around 1400 B.C. and died when he was still a teenager. Backed by a rich Brit, Lord Carnarvon, Carter searched for five years without success. In early 1922, Lord Carnarvon wanted to call off the search, but Carter convinced him to hold on one more year.

Finally the wait paid off when Carter came upon the first of twelve steps of the entrance that led to the tomb of Tutankhamun. He quickly recovered the steps and sent a telegram to Carnarvon in England so they could open the tomb together. Carnarvon departed for Egypt immediately and on November 26, 1922, they made a hole in the entrance of the antechamber in order to look in.

Tutankhamun’s burial mask.
Tutankhamun’s burial mask.

 

Chests inside the treasury.
Chests inside the treasury.

Carter recalled: “At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flame to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the lights, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold –everywhere the glint of gold”.

When Carter and Lord Carnarvon entered the tomb’s interior chambers on November 26, they were thrilled to find it virtually intact, with its treasures untouched after more than 3,000 years. The men began exploring the four rooms of the tomb, and on February 16, 1923, under the watchful eyes of a number of important officials, Carter opened the door to the last chamber.

Inside lay a sarcophagus with three coffins nested inside one another. The last coffin, made of solid gold, contained the mummified body of King Tut. Among the riches found in the tomb–golden shrines, jewelry, statues, a chariot, weapons, clothing–the perfectly preserved mummy was the most valuable, as it was the first one ever to be discovered.

Carter examines Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus.
Carter examines Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus.
Arthur Mace and Alfred Lucas work on a golden chariot from Tutankhamun’s tomb outside the “laboratory” in the tomb of Sethos II.
Arthur Mace and Alfred Lucas work on a golden chariot from Tutankhamun’s tomb outside the “laboratory” in the tomb of Sethos II.

 

Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus held not one but three coffins in which to hold the body of the king. The outer two coffins were crafted in wood and covered in gold along with many semiprecious stones, such as lapis lazuli and turquoise. The inner coffin, however, was made of solid gold. When Howard Carter first came upon this coffin, it was not the shiny golden image we see in the Egyptian museum today. In his excavation notes, Carter states, it was “covered with a thick black pitch-like layer which extended from the hands down to the ankles. This was obviously an anointing liquid which had been poured over the coffin during the burial ceremony and in great quantity (some two buckets full)”.

 

An assortment of model boats in the treasury of the tomb.
An assortment of model boats in the treasury of the tomb.

The tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took place within several months at most of the initial burial.

Eventually, the location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent tombs, either dumped there or washed there by floods. In the years that followed, some huts for workers were built over the tomb entrance, clearly without anyone’s knowing what lay beneath. When at the end of the 20th Dynasty the Valley of the Kings burial sites were systematically dismantled, Tutankhamun’s tomb was overlooked, presumably because knowledge of it had been lost, and his name may have been forgotten.

 

Ornately carved alabaster vases in the antechamber.
Ornately carved alabaster vases in the antechamber.

n total 5,398 items were found in the tomb, including a solid gold coffin, face mask, thrones, archery bows, trumpets, a lotus chalice, food, wine, sandals, and fresh linen underwear. Howard Carter took 10 years to catalog the items. Recent analysis suggests a dagger recovered from the tomb had an iron blade made from a meteorite; study of artifacts of the time including other artifacts from Tutankhamun’s tomb could provide valuable insights into metalworking technologies around the Mediterranean at the time.

For many years, rumors of a “Curse of the Pharaohs” (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery) persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had entered the tomb. A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years. All the others were still alive, including Howard Carter, who died of lymphoma in 1939 at the age of 64. The last survivor, American archaeologist J.O. Kinnaman, died in 1961, a full 39 years after the event.

 

A statue of Anubis on a shrine with pallbearers’ poles in the treasury of the tomb.
A statue of Anubis on a shrine with pallbearers’ poles in the treasury of the tomb.
Howard Carter, Arthur Callender and an Egyptian worker open the doors of the innermost shrine and get their first look at Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus.
Howard Carter, Arthur Callender and an Egyptian worker open the doors of the innermost shrine and get their first look at Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus.
In a “laboratory” set up in the tomb of Sethos II, conservators Arthur Mace and Alfred Lucas clean one of the sentinel statues from the antechamber.
In a “laboratory” set up in the tomb of Sethos II, conservators Arthur Mace and Alfred Lucas clean one of the sentinel statues from the antechamber.
Under the lion bed in the antechamber are several boxes and chests, and an ebony and ivory chair which Tutankhamun used as a child.
Under the lion bed in the antechamber are several boxes and chests, and an ebony and ivory chair which Tutankhamun used as a child.
Carter, Callender and two Egyptian workers carefully dismantle one of the golden shrines within the burial chamber.
Carter, Callender and two Egyptian workers carefully dismantle one of the golden shrines within the burial chamber.
Carter, Callende, and two workers remove the partition wall between the antechamber and the burial chamber.
Carter, Callende, and two workers remove the partition wall between the antechamber and the burial chamber.
Howard Carter, Arthur Callender and an Egyptian worker wrap one of the sentinel statues for transport.
Howard Carter, Arthur Callender and an Egyptian worker wrap one of the sentinel statues for transport.
A gilded lion bed and inlaid clothes chest among other objects in the antechamber.
A gilded lion bed and inlaid clothes chest among other objects in the antechamber.
Inside the outermost shrine in the burial chamber, a huge linen pall with gold rosettes, reminiscent of the night sky, covers the smaller shrines within.
Inside the outermost shrine in the burial chamber, a huge linen pall with gold rosettes, reminiscent of the night sky, covers the smaller shrines within.
A gilded bust of the Celestial Cow Mehet-Weret and chests sit in the treasury of the tomb.
A gilded bust of the Celestial Cow Mehet-Weret and chests sit in the treasury of the tomb.
Carter and a worker examine the solid gold innermost sarcophagus.
Carter and a worker examine the solid gold innermost sarcophagus.
A ceremonial bed in the shape of the Celestial Cow, surrounded by provisions and other objects in the antechamber of the tomb.
A ceremonial bed in the shape of the Celestial Cow, surrounded by provisions and other objects in the antechamber of the tomb.
Lord Carnarvon, financier of the excavation, reads on the veranda of Carter’s house near the Valley of the Kings.
Lord Carnarvon, financier of the excavation, reads on the veranda of Carter’s house near the Valley of the Kings.

(Via rarehistoricalphotos)(Photo credit: Harry Burton, The Griffith Institute, Oxford. Colorized by Dynamichrome for the exhibition “The Discovery of King Tut” in New York).

Rare Street vendor selling mummies in Egypt, 1865

During the Victorian era of 1800’s, Napoleon’s conquest of Egypt threw open the Gates of Egypt’s history for the Europeans. At that time, mummies were not accorded the respect that they deserved from the European elites and in fact, mummies could be purchased from street vendors (as shown in picture) to be used as the main event for parties and social gatherings that took place in the 18th century. The elites of the era would often hold “Mummy Unwrapping Parties”, which, as the name suggests, had the main theme in which a Mummy would be unwrapped in front of a boisterous audience, cheering and applauding at the same time.

During that period of time, the well-preserved remains of ancient Egyptians were routinely ground into powder and consumed as a medicinal remedy. Indeed, so popular was pulverized mummy that it even instigated a counterfeit trade to meet demand, in which the flesh of beggars was passed off as that of ancient mummified Egyptians.

As the Industrial Revolution progressed, so Egyptian mummies were exploited for more utilitarian purposes: huge numbers of human and animal mummies were ground up and shipped to Britain and Germany for use as fertilizer. Others were used to create mummy brown pigment or were stripped of their wrappings, which were subsequently exported to the US for use in the paper-making industry. The author Mark Twain even reported that mummies were burnt in Egypt as locomotive fuel.

As the nineteenth century advanced, mummies became prized objects of display and scores of them were purchased by wealthy European and American private collectors as tourist souvenirs. For those who could not afford a whole mummy, disarticulated remains – such as a head, hand or foot – could be purchased on the black market and smuggled back home.

So brisk was the trade in mummies to Europe that even after ransacking tombs and catacombs there just were not enough ancient Egyptian bodies to meet the demand. And so fake mummies were fabricated from the corpses of the executed criminals, the aged, the poor and those who had died from hideous diseases, by burying them in the sand or stuffing them with bitumen and exposing them to the sun.

Interesting facts:

  • Mummy brown was originally made in the 16th and 17th centuries from white pitch, myrrh, and the ground-up remains of Egyptian mummies, both human and feline. As it had good transparency, it could be used for glazes, shadows, flesh tones and shading. Artists believed that when bitumen and mummified flesh were used in oil paint it wouldn’t crack or dry. Mummy Brown eventually ceased being produced in its traditional form later in the 20th century when the supply of available mummies was exhausted.
  • Mummia or mummy is either a substance used in the embalming of mummies, or a powder made from ground mummies, used as a “medical preparation”. Ancient Egyptian mummy-making often utilized asphaltum (Persian: mumiya) as an ingredient for filling the empty body cavities once the organs were removed. In the Middle Ages, the resin that had been used on ancient Egyptian mummies was believed to have superior medicinal and chemical value to regular asphaltum, and the resulting demand for the ingredient caused the term to be applied to the dead bodies required to harvest it as much as to the ingredient itself.

(Via rarehistoricalphotosYou might also like: Headless Photos of the Victoria Era

14 Stunning Photos of African Americans in Chicago in the 1970s

From June through October 1973 and briefly during the spring of 1974, John H. White, a 28-year-old photographer with the Chicago Daily News, worked for the federal government photographing Chicago, especially the city`s African American community. White took his photographs for the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) DOCUMERICA project. As White reflected recently, he saw his assignment as “an opportunity to capture a slice of life, to capture history.” His photographs portray the difficult circumstances faced by many of Chicago`s African American residents in the early 1970s, but they also catch the “spirit, love, zeal, pride, and hopes of the community.”

Today, John White is a staff photographer with the Chicago Sun-Times. He has won hundreds of awards, and his work has been exhibited and published widely. In 1982 he received the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography.

Sunrise on Lake Michigan with Chicago shown in the background. March 1973.
(National Archives and Records Administration)

 

Black sidewalk salesmen arranging their fresh fruits and vegetables on Chicago’s South Side. June 1973

 

Black products was one of the themes at the annual Black Expo held in Chicago. October 1973
Empty housing in the ghetto on Chicago`s South Side. May 1973
Chicago ghetto on the South Side. May 1973

“Chicago ghetto on the South Side. Although the percentage of Chicago blacks making $7,000 or more jumped from 26% to 58% between 1960 and 1970, a large percentage still remained unemployed. The black unemployment rate is generally assumed to be twice that of the national unemployment rate published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.”

The captions are John White’s own, written some time after he took his photographs. In some cases White used virtually the same caption for several images.
“Black youths play basketball at Stateway Gardens’ high-rise housing project on Chicago’s South Side. The complex has eight buildings with 1,633 two and three bedroom apartments housing 6,825 persons. They were built under the U.S. Housing Acts of 1949 and 1968. They are managed by the Chicago Housing Authority which is responsible for 41,500 public housing dwellings.”

 

“Black youngsters cool off with fire hydrant water on Chicago’s South Side in the Woodlawn community. The kids don’t go to the city beaches and use the fire hydrants to cool off instead. It’s a tradition in the community, comprised of very low income people. The area has high crime and fire records. From 1960 to 1970 the percentage of Chicago blacks with income of $7,000 or more jumped from 26% to 58%.”
“Young woman soliciting funds for a Chicago organization in a shopping center parking lot. She is one of the nearly 1.2 million black people who make up over a third of the population of Chicago. It is one of the many black faces in this project that portray life in all its seasons. The photos are portraits that reflect pride, love, beauty, hope, struggle, joy, hate, frustration, discontent, worship, and faith. She is a member of her race who is proud of her heritage.”

 

“Minority youngsters who have gathered to have their picture taken on Chicago’s South Side during a talent show. Blacks make up over one third of the 3.6 million population in the city. Chicago census figures for 1970 show a significant gap in economic security between blacks and whites. Only 35% of black families earned $10,000 to $25,000 compared to 60% of white families. Of families earning less than $8,000 a total of 50% were black compared to 21% white.”
“A black man painting a store front on South Wabash Street. One of the nearly 1.2 million people of his race who make up over a third of Chicago’s population. It is one of the many black faces in this project that portray life in all its seasons. In short, they are portraits of human beings who feel they are individuals and are proud of their heritage.” July 1973

 

Religious fervor is mirrored on the face of a Black Muslim woman, one of some 10,000 listening to Elijah Muhammad deliver his annual Savior’s Day message in Chicago. March 1974
`The Fruit of Islam,` a special group of bodyguards for Muslim leader Elijah Muhammad, sits at the bottom of the platform while he delivers his annual Savior`s Day message in Chicago. March 1974
Black bongo player performs at the International Amphitheater in Chicago as part of the annual PUSH [People United to Save Humanity] ‘Black Expo’ in the fall of 1973. October 1973
The Rev. Jesse Jackson speaks on a radio broadcast from the headquarters of Operation PUSH, [People United to Save Humanity] at its annual convention. July 1973
(All photos and text courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration)